There’s a new, fake movie-streaming service in town called BravoMovies, and the offerings are utter garbage. Despite its pretty pictures and fun-sounding titles, it’s got nothing to offer for download besides BazaLoader malware.
BazaLoader is a loader used to deploy ransomware or other types of malware and to steal sensitive data from victimized systems.
On Wednesday, Proofpoint researchers said in a report that they first observed BazaLoader in April 2020. Multiple threat actors are using the downloader, which is written in C++, to load malware such as Ryuk and Conti ransomware. As well, Proofpoint researchers said that they’re confident that there’s a “strong overlap” between the distribution and post-exploitation activity of BazaLoader and the threat actors behind The Trick malware, also known as Trickbot.
The BravoMovies campaign uses an elaborate infection chain that’s in keeping with BazaLoader affiliates, who coax their victims into jumping through a number of hoops in order to trigger the malware payloads. It starts with an email telling recipients that their credit cards will be charged unless they cancel their subscription to the service – a subscription that they never signed up for, of course.
Some of the subject headers used to bait the trap:
The email includes a phone number for a customer service line for a call center that has live humans standing by, ready to direct callers to a website where they can purportedly cancel the bogus movie-streaming service. However, the site directs those who fall for the con to instead download a boobytrapped Excel spreadsheet that will spring macros that download BazaLoader.
Proofpoint researchers wrote that BravoMovies has the charade down pat. The fake movie-streaming service looks just like a legitimate movie and TV streaming service, complete with fake movie titles as a landing page. In fact, the threat actors jerry-rigged fake posters. “The threat actors used fake movie posters obtained from various open-source resources including an advertising agency, the creative social network Behance, and the book ‘How to Steal a Dog’”, researchers said.
The call-center operators tell their targets to visit the BravoMovies site, to pull up the Frequently Asked Questions page and to follow the directions to unsubscribe via the “Subscribtion” page. Next, they’ll be instructed to download an Excel Sheet.
The Excel sheet contains the macros that will download BazaLoader if enabled. Proofpoint researchers haven’t yet observed the second-stage payload in this campaign, they said.
This isn’t the first time that Proofpoint has seen intricately composed BazaLoader email threat campaigns that have required a significant amount of human interaction – including phone-based customer service representatives – in order to trigger the malware download.
Security researchers have dubbed the call-center or live-human method “BazarCall”.
The first such use of BazaLoad spotted by Proofpoint researchers was in February 2021, when a pre-Valentine’s Day malware attack delivered lures to fake flower and lingerie stores. They’ve also seen it used in a subscription pharmaceutical services campaign.
More Complicated Malware Campaign = Better Evasion
Proofpoint researchers first observed the BravoMovies campaign earlier this month. They noted that its complicated nature is successful in a counterintuitive way. Namely, this campaign “demonstrates an inversely proportional relationship between successful infection rates and asking people to complete complicated steps – the more steps required by the user, the less likely they are to complete the attack chain,” they explained. “However, despite being counterintuitive, the techniques used by the threat actors in this, and similar, campaigns help bypass fully automated threat detection systems.”
For example, these techniques can help threat actors to slip past services that only flag malicious links or email attachments, they said. Similar multi-step infection chains with ample interaction from targets have been used to distribute Trickbot.
Proofpoint is forecasting that the threat actors behind BazaLoader and Trickbot will keep using these carefully crafted techniques in the future.
Taking Advantage of Post-COVID Cancel-itis
Also, similar to how lingerie and flowers is an email equivalent to irresistible pheromones wafting into your inbox around Valentine’s Day, cancelling streaming services plays to what Proofpoint researchers noted is a growing trend of users cancelling online entertainment following the industry’s growth spurt during the pandemic.
“Using entertainment subscription themes may be a timely and effective method for convincing users to engage with the email content and follow-on malicious documents,” the report elaborated. “During the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, subscriptions to online streaming services skyrocketed, surpassing one billion users globally last year. But according to recent 2021 data, consumers are using fewer services while churning through free subscriptions and cancelling when their trials run out. BazaLoader threat actors are taking advantage of this human behavior trend in the identified campaign.”
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